China/Shanghai/MaglevTrain (上海磁浮示范运营线) Part 78

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Shanghai Maglev:
The Shanghai Maglev Train, also known as the Transrapid, is the fastest commercial train currently in operation and has a top speed of 430 km/h (270 mph). The line was designed to connect Shanghai Pudong International Airport and the outskirts of central Pudong, Shanghai. It covers a distance of 30.5 kilometres (19.0 mi) in 8 minutes. The Shanghai system was labeled a white elephant by rivals.In January 2001, the Chinese signed an agreement with Transrapid to build an EMS high-speed maglev line to link Pudong International Airport with Longyang Road Metro station on the eastern edge of Shanghai. This Shanghai Maglev Train demonstration line, or Initial Operating Segment (IOS), has been in commercial operations since April 2004[88] and now operates 115 daily trips (up from 110 in 2010) that traverse the 30 km (19 mi) between the two stations in 7 minutes, achieving a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph) and averaging 266 km/h (165 mph). On a 12 November 2003 system commissioning test run, it achieved 501 km/h (311 mph), its designed top cruising speed. The Shanghai maglev is faster than Birmingham technology and comes with on-time – to the second – reliability greater than 99.97%.
Plans to extend the line to Shanghai South Railway Station and Hongqiao Airport on the western edge of Shanghai are on hold. After the Shanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway became operational in late 2010, the maglev extension became somewhat redundant and may be canceled.
Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a transport method that uses magnetic levitation to move vehicles without making contact with the ground. With maglev, a vehicle travels along a guideway using magnets to create both lift and propulsion, thereby reducing friction by a great extent and allowing very high speeds. In itself, maglev technology includes no moving parts.
Maglev trains move more smoothly and more quietly than wheeled mass transit systems. The power needed for levitation is typically not a large percentage of its overall energy consumption; most goes to overcome drag, as with other high-speed transport. Maglev trains hold the speed record for trains.
Compared to conventional trains, differences in construction affect the economics of maglev trains, making them much more efficient. For high-speed trains with wheels, wear and tear from friction from wheels on rails accelerates equipment wear and prevents high speeds. Conversely, maglev systems have been much more expensive to construct, offsetting lower maintenance costs.
Despite decades of research and development, maglev transport systems are in operation in just three countries (Japan, Korea and China). In April 2004, Shanghai's Transrapid system began commercial operations. In March 2005, Japan began operation of its relatively low-speed HSST "Linimo" line in time for the 2005 World Expo. In its first three months, the Linimo line carried over 10 million passengers. South Korea became the world's fourth country to succeed in implementing maglev technology with the Incheon Airport Maglev beginning regular operation on February 3, 2016.While the Transrapid in Shanghai was primarily based on German technology, China has started its own program for low speed maglev with the Changsha Maglev in operation in Changsha and the S1 Line in Beijing under construction. In Japan a new high speed maglev line, the Chuo Shinkansen is planned to become operational in 2027, with construction starting 2017.
Records:
The highest recorded maglev speed is 603 km/h (375 mph), achieved in Japan by JR Central's L0 superconducting Maglev on 21 April 2015,[71] 28 km/h (17 mph) faster than the conventional TGV wheel-rail speed record. However, the operational and performance differences between these two very different technologies is far greater. The TGV record was achieved accelerating down a 72.4 km (45.0 mi) slight decline, requiring 13 minutes. It then took another 77.25 km (48.00 mi) for the TGV to stop, requiring a total distance of 149.65 km (92.99 mi) for the test. The MLX01 record, however, was achieved on the 18.4 km (11.4 mi) Yamanashi test track – 1/8 the distance. No maglev or wheel-rail commercial operation has actually been attempted at speeds over 500 km/h.Wikipedia

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